4 Principle Toxic Gas in AIr-Pollution

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4 Principle Toxic Gas in Air-Pollution

                     The air quality report with the Air Quality Index (AQI) must measure small dust, PM10, PM2.5 and toxic gas NO2 SO2 O3 and CO.

                     The four toxic gases are hiding in the haze to harm our health. Today came to know the source. Pathogenesis And side effects


1. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

  • Physical
                 Reddish-brown gas, Pungent odor

  • Carcinogenic properties
                 ACGIH Carcinogenicity: A4
                 IARC: N / A (not evaluated)

  • Standard values ​​in the environment 
                  EPA NAAQS: 53 ppb (Annual), 100 ppb (1 hour)

  • Source
                  Caused by burning fuel at high temperatures (1000 degrees Celsius) and having enough oxygen
    Petrochemical industry, industrial separation or processing, natural gas smelting, cement mortar, thermal power plant, etc.

  • Pathogenesis
                  When breathing nitrogen dioxide into the body Will react with water in the respiratory tract and lungs Can be nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrous acid (HNO2) and free radicals Resulting in destruction of lung cells Destroy the respiratory mucosa Caused bronchitis and pneumonitis
    Nitrogen dioxide is also capable of binding to hemoglobin. Can be thousands of times better than carbon monoxide When entering the bloodstream, it will be converted into methemoglobin. (methemoglobin) nitrite and nitrate which inhibit the transport of oxygen to various parts of the body

  • Clinical symptoms
                 Acute symptoms: If the amount of contamination in the air is low Will cause a slight upper respiratory tract irritation In the event that the amount of contamination in the air is high Will cause upper respiratory tract irritation such as burning nose, coughing, sore throat and burning eyes
                 Important symptoms to be aware of: lower respiratory tract irritation After breathing, take this material for about 24 hours, causing pulmonary edema and severe oxygen deficiency. If treatment of pneumonia is improved May cause obstructive bronchospasm (Bronchiolitis obliteran) from chronic inflammation until bronchospasm
                  Chronic symptoms: causing asthma Pulmonary fibrosis And emphysema

2. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
  • Physical

                      The gas has no color, has a pungent smell.

  • Carcinogenic properties
                  IARC: Group 3 (can not be classified as a carcinogen in humans or not)
                 ACGIH Carcinogenicity: A4 (can not be classified as a carcinogen in humans)
  • Standard values ​​in the environment
                 EPA NAAQS: Primary standard = 0.03 ppm (Annual arithmetic mean), 0.14 ppm (24-hour), Secondary standard = 0.5 ppm (1,300 ug / m3) (3-hour)
  • Source
                  Leather and fur bleaching industry Kill germs in food preservation Fermenting beer and wine Wood industry, heavy metal and lithium battery making
  • Pathogenesis
                  Acts to irritate the respiratory system. Cause pneumonia And formed a tissue of the lung membrane In prolonged exposure to prolonged exposure Chronic bronchitis
  • Clinical symptoms
                  Acute symptoms: enter the respiratory body If ingested, a small amount will cause irritation to the respiratory system. A large number of coughs may be accompanied by pneumonia. And acts irritating to various mucous membranes Especially the eyes
                  Chronic symptoms: causing sniffing and destruction of the bronchus and lung tissue caused by bronchitis and chronic pneumonia


3. Ozone (Ozone, O3)
  • Physical
                     Gaes, light blue Has a chlorine-like odor
  • Carcinogenic properties
                      IARC Group: N / A
                      ACGIH Carcinogenicity: N / A
  • Standard values ​​in the environment
                      EPA NAAQS: Primary and secondary standard levels to 0.070 parts per million (ppm)
  • Source


                     Caused by chemical reactions in the atmosphere between air pollutants such as Nitrogen dioxide And volatile organic compounds With sunlight as an energy source
  • Pathogenesis
                      Cause respiratory muscle contraction, difficulty breathing and noisy breathing from bronchial stenosis Inflammation of the pleura Lungs are easily infected. And if exposed to continuous and prolonged exposure, can cause emphysema.
  • Clinical symptoms
                      Acute symptoms: enter the body through breathing Causing throat irritation, sore throat and coughing in young children resulting in abnormal lung development Stimulate the occurrence of acute asthma, bronchitis and emphysema.
Chronic symptoms: chronic inflammation Cause asthma, emphysema and may cause premature death


4.Carbon monoxide
  • Physical

                      Colorless gas, odorless

  • Carcinogenic properties
                   IARC Group: N / A (not evaluated)
                  ACGIH Carcinogenicity: N / A (not evaluated)
  • Standard values ​​in the environment
                   EPA NAAQS: 9 ppm (8 hours), 35 ppm (1 hour)
  • Natural sources
                   Cigarette smoke and smoke, forest fires caused by incomplete organic combustion
                   Organic synthesis of petroleum products
                   Car smoke, motorcycle caused by incomplete combustion
  • Pathogenesis
                    Carbon monoxide will bind to the substance in the red blood cell called Hemoglobin (Hb). Carboxyhemoglobin (Carbon monoxide can catch Hemoglobin better than Oxygen 200 - 300 times), which will result in the transfer of Oxygen to various tissues. In the body can be reduced

  • Clinical symptoms
                     Acute symptoms: If receiving carbon monoxide from breathing to a small to moderate level Will cause headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, restlessness, confusion, abnormal vision low blood pressure Fast heart beat And have faster breathing In the case of receiving large quantities Will cause unconsciousness, shock, respiratory depression, including the cardiovascular system, cerebral edema and may die If not died after receiving large amounts of carbon monoxide Then often cause complications of the nervous system, such as forgetfulness (dementia), schizophrenia, abnormal movement Abnormal mood Changed personality
                     Chronic symptoms: Low carbon monoxide exposure For a long period of time, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, fatigue, dizziness, palpitations, which are not specific symptoms Difficult to distinguish from food poisoning or viral infections

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